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DUI: Understanding the Walk-and-Turn Test

Field sobriety tests are roadside tests police conduct during a traffic stop in California to determine if a driver is impaired or unlawfully under the influence of alcohol or another chemical substance. The Walk-and-Turn (WAT) test is one of the most commonly used field sobriety tests.  The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) also considers it as one of three standardized field sobriety tests.  The results are as evidence against you in DUI cases.

If you had to perform the Walk-and-Turn test, it is important that you understand what it is and how it can be challenged.  At Berglund Law Office, P.C., our DUI defense lawyer in Los Angeles represents clients in all types of DUI cases.  Call us at (877) 667-1205 or submit our CONTACT form to schedule a free consultation and to discover how we help our clients defend against DUI charges.

What is a Walk-and-Turn Test?

The Walk-and-Turn test is a standardized field sobriety test typically used by the police to determine whether a driver is unlawfully under the influence of drugs or alcohol. 

During the Walk-and-Turn test, the police are supposed to provide clear and unequivocal instructions and demonstrate the task at hand before you begin the test.

The test itself involves walking in a straight line, heel-to-toe, for nine steps with your arms at your side. Then, at the conclusion of the nine steps, you turn around and walk back to the starting point in the same heel-to-toe manner.

The NHTSA requires certain conditions in order for the test to be performed properly.

  1. A designated straight line
  2. A reasonably dry, hard, level non-slippery surface
  3. Adequate room for nine steps
  4. An option to remove shoes with heels two inches high

Walk-and-Turn Test Clues of Impairment

The purpose of field sobriety tests is to identify clues that indicate you are impaired.  The WAT test incorporates eight clues:

  1. Lack of balance while following instructions
  2. Beginning before instructed to begin
  3. Failing to touch your heel to your toe while walking
  4. Stepping off of the straight line
  5. Stopping while walking
  6. Raising or moving arms to maintain balance
  7. Making an improper turn
  8. Taking more or fewer than nine steps

Missing or failing two or more clues is supposed to indicate that your blood alcohol content (BAC) level is likely over 0.08 percent.  However, this field sobriety test, like the others, has flaws and is vulnerable to problems that make relying on the results suspect.

Problems with the Walk-and-Turn Test in California

The Walk-and-Turn test is not a reliable way to determine unlawful intoxication.  Problems often involve how the test is administered, pre-existing physical or mental conditions, and unsatisfactory environmental conditions.

Police Error

The police make mistakes.  They may not provide proper instructions or may interpret the test improperly.  For example, an officer may count a person's slow walk as a clue for stopping while walking. Slow walking, however, is specifically identified by the NHTSA as not stopping, but it can be hard to determine what's slow and what's stopping.  It all depends on the point of view or interpretation of the officer.

Health Conditions

Research by the NHTSA has shown this test is not suitable for anyone who:

  • is over the age of 65
  • has back or leg problems
  • has middle ear problems

But other health issues, whether physical or mental, can also negatively affect a person's performance.  Anxiety is a serious health condition.  Sufferers of anxiety can experience an anxiety attack from the traffic stop alone, not to mention being asked to perform a divided attention test.

Environmental Conditions

The NHTSA requires a certain environment for this test to be properly performed.  Unfortunately, you do not get to choose where you are pulled over for a traffic stop.  There is no guarantee the ground will be level and non-slippery or that enough room will be available to safely complete the test.

Further, other environmental conditions can cause distractions and disruptions, like:

  • loud, heavy traffic
  • weather conditions (rain, snow, cold, heat)
  • glaring sun or no sun at all, making it difficult to see

Why These Problems Matter

These problems matter because if you failed the test, it can be used to influence a jury that you were indeed impaired while operating a vehicle.  It can also be used to influence you to agree to a plea deal when minus failed field sobriety tests, you could have gotten the DUI charges reduced or dismissed.  

Field sobriety tests are used to create probable cause.  Probable cause is required for a DUI arrest.  When field sobriety tests are unreliable and probable cause is based on them, you suddenly face possible criminal charges that are not necessary.  The whole process can be emotionally exhausting, time-consuming, and costly.

Five Ways to Challenge Field Sobriety Test Results in California

If you took and failed a field sobriety test, like the Walk-and-Turn test, you need to challenge the test result by all means possible.  These results can be used against you in court.  At Berglund Law Office, P.C., our DUI defense lawyer may challenge the results using different strategies.  The strategy used depends on the facts and circumstances.

  1. Did the officer administer the tests improperly or fail to provide adequate instructions? We will review any audio or video as well as speak to you and other witnesses.
  2. Did the road, traffic, or weather conditions impact performance? We can review videos, photographs, weather reports, traffic reports, and other forms of evidence.
  3. Did your shoes, clothing, or health condition impact performance? We will review your clothing and health conditions with you.
  4. Was the officer's subjective assessment flawed? We will again review any videos or testimony and consider if this is a valid claim.

It is always critical to speak to a good DUI defense attorney to understand what your rights are and how best to fight the drunk driving charges.

Contact Our DUI Defense Attorney in Los Angeles Today

Walk-and-Turn tests are often unreliable and can be challenged.  At Berglund Law Office, P.C., our DUI defense lawyer will review the circumstances of your DUI arrest and challenge any results from field sobriety tests, breath tests, or blood tests.  When appropriate, we will file motions to exclude the results from evidence.  CONTACT us today by filling out the online form or calling us at (877) 667-1205 to schedule a free consultation.


Our office specializes in representing individuals facing traffic violations. We represent our clients in both court and at DMV hearings. Your case will be handled with the personalized attention and expertise that it deserves.

Free Consultation

There is no charge for the phone consultation. Our office specializes in representing individuals facing traffic violations. Attorney Robert D. Berglund will personally speak with you about your case and provide you with an honest analysis. Contact us today.